Should be no problem using 10/125µm single-mode fiber with the single mode SFP module we ship. Single-mode fiber SFPs are designed for core diameters from 8-10 microns in size. An SFP designed for a smaller core diameter than the actual single mode fiber should not lose any light (no power loss).
Most SFPs are designed for the full range of available single mode fiber core diameters. However 9/125µm is by far the more common single mode fiber cable, though core diameters N from 8-10mµ are possible.